UI THE SELJUK TURKS 103 lifetime Toghril chose Azud-u-DIn, Abu Shuja Alp Arslan, son of Chakir Beg and younger brother of Malik Kaward, as his successor. After ToghriTs death, Al- Kunduri,1 his minister, unwisely supported Sulayman, brother of his late master, but in vain, and he himself was put to death. His dying message to Alp Arslan ran : " Say to the King, c Lo, a fortunate service has your service been to me ; for thy uncle gave me this world to rule over, whilst thou, giving me the martyr's portion, hast granted me the other world ; so, by your service, have I gained this world and that! * " The " Conquering Lion"—to translate his title—mighty ruler though he was, is chiefly remembered in connexion with Abu Ali Hasan bin Ishak, famous in history as the Nizam-ul- Mulk. This great statesman was born at Radkan, some fifty miles to the north of Meshed, and after enjoying a good education attracted the favourable notice of Chakir Beg. Having been recommended to Alp Arslan, he became his Vizier. He is always looked upon as the model of a great minister, and some, at least, of his work has endured ; for the Persian system of accounts which prevails to-day is believed to have been originated by him. Among his prot6g£s was Omar Khayyam, the Persian poet best known to Europeans ; and the famous college which he founded at Baghdad became a school of great men, among whom al-Ghazdli, the eminent theologian, deserves special mention. Under Alp Arslan the boundaries of the Seljuk Empire were extended. Eastward he subdued Herat, and later on Jand in Transoxiana ; he also successfully checked the ambitions of his brother Kaward, as already related. In Arabia he overcame the Fatimids and gained Mecca and Medina, thereby much augmenting his prestige. In A.H. 464 (1071) he defeated a vastly superior Byzantine army in western Asia Minor and took prisoner the Emperor Diogenes Romanus. The story is told that when Romanus, who had fought heroically, was brought to Alp Arslan he was asked what treatment he expected. He replied either death or to be paraded ' ! So called from Kundur in the Turshiz district.